EV Conundrum!

 

Lithium2

I am back to my favourite topic, Electric Vehicles or EV! A couple of days back there was a meeting called by NITI Ayog to discuss and decide EV policy for two-wheelers, in India. I am going to write only about the Indian scenario. My observation is that the electric four-vehicle of similar specification as the IC engine costs almost double the price. Plus per charge range of these vehicles is about 110 km. The specs are not good enough for the car to be used for out of station travel. With these limitations, it is going to be challenging to sell such vehicles. But in two-wheelers, I have observed that the price of EV’s is comparable with IC engine version. Distance travelled using two-wheelers is much less compared to four-wheelers. In India, parking two-wheelers at home is manageable compared to four-wheelers.

There are many angles to this issues. First and foremost is the fuel. With limited petroleum product reserves, there is bound to be a tough situation for the whole world if no action is taken, we will have difficulties. Add to this a new dimension; the US has threatened India to stop buying oil from Iran or else! If the US is so much worried about the whole world vis a vis Iran, then they should sell Oil to India at the same price as sold by Iran and that too in Rupees! But the US can get away with anything in diplomacy.

Petroleum product based fuels are adding to pollution is a known fact. The whole world is trying to reduce pollution by tightening the pollution norms, but apparently, there are limitations of investments to achieve the goals. Again the US has opted out of the body which is trying to track pollution world over. Again, it is the act of a bully.

All the nations are trying to reduce pollution in their cities and India is also trying its best. NITI Ayog meeting was held for the same purpose. Four-wheelers are still miles away from reaching the balance between the price targets and the cost. As four-wheelers will be expensive, their sales will not match current sales volumes at a price expected today. The second most crucial aspect in India is the challenge of charging the car batteries. Majority of the cars in India are parked in public places. Many of them are parked on roads and streets. How to provide a facility to charge batteries for such vehicles? Do we provide charging points on roads like we have parking meters? I don’t think that is a practical way of doing it. Another issue is that fast charging techniques are coming up but are still not good enough. With such limitations, NITI Ayog is trying to put pressure on the two-wheeler segment.

As already discussed, EV’s in this segment will have a comparable price, and because of lesser parking issues, charging the batteries using home electrical outlets may be possible. Charging is manageable; costs are manageable, and the number of these vehicles produced is very high. The number of two and three-wheelers manufactured in the latest financial year is 30 million plus. Total of fuel used by these vehicles is massive.  If totally converted to EVs, there can be a significant impact on pollution.

There are two groups in this segment. First and the main is the group of established manufacturers like Honda, Hero and Bajaj. They are already developing EVs. The second segment is the startups who are in the process of developing EVs. They have no hangups and are trying to support the government. But the established ones have the issue of scaling up. NITI Ayog is insisting that by 2025, majority two-wheelers manufactured should be EV’s. The Giants have a vast experience in manufacturing and can visualise or foresee the issues. Startups really don’t have manufacturing expertise and experience. They probably do not understand the meaning of manufacturing 2.5 million vehicles a month.

Now here is a complicated situation. Established manufacturers have to keep on producing IC Engine vehicles and ramp up EV production. Tremendous efforts and money will be needed. Startups may know the EV technology but do not have the wherewithal to manufacture one hundred thousand vehicles a month. Selling these numbers without the right experience is going to be very tough. What about funding? They are solely dependent on financing by VCs. Today I read an article about VCs trying to go away from electric vehicle manufacturers, in China, as there are too many variables. These startups will never get bank funding. Don’t forget that even Tesla is still a VC funded company! They are already facing production bottlenecks, and their sales are going down!

Will Lithium producers make a cartel like the petroleum cartel? It is a million dollar question. India does not have Lithium reserves, but China has done brilliantly. They have taken controlling shares in many mines across the globe. Till foreseeable future, it looks like the Lithium, and to some extent, Cobalt is going to be the key elements. Their control will be the key to success.

https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/india-lithium-ion-battery-market

Lithium1

The cost of the battery pack was the US $1000/ kW-hr in 2010. In the year 2016, it came down $273. At this rate, the EV’s will become affordable over a period. By 2020 it is expected to be sub $200/. By 2026 the price is projected to be $100/. But till that time it is going to be a tricky question about change over. Those who can afford will buy the EV’s, but the mass production models will take some time to become affordable. In the countries, where parking of cars is an issue, it is difficult to predict what the solution will be.

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One pertinent point discussed by NITI Ayog was that if the pollution goes out of hand, then the courts will intervene. Once that happens then, the discussion will be between manufacturers and the courts. NITI Ayog suggested that some policy decisions need to be taken while interested parties are involved in the debate; it will enable both sides to come to an excellent resolution.

It is more of a chicken and egg situation. It is known that EVs are good for pollution management. On one side, nobody even knows which startups will even survive five years hence. Hence there is no point in putting your money on them. But the existing giants have their issues. They need to run their current business, which has its unique problems. They have to simultaneously scale down and scale up for old and new business. Hence they have shown their apprehension with the year 2025. How will they come out of this conundrum is anybody’s guess.

Are Electric buses the real solution for pollution control and to take people away from personal vehicles?

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Startups, Venture and Angel Investors!

I am venturing into an area where even angels are afraid to tread! For a long time, I have felt lost with the terms mentioned in the title. To my understanding as an oldie, anyone starting a new business is a start-up. Investopedia definition of a startup is below:

A startup is a young company that is just beginning to develop. Startups are usually small and initially financed and operated by a handful of founders or one individual. These companies offer a product or service that is not currently being provided elsewhere in the market, or that the founders believe is being offered in an inferior manner. 

If we go by the strict definition of startups then the names like Uber, Airbnb, Zomato, Oyo and their likes come to mind. These companies have provided a service or a facility which was never offered before. These facilities became possible because of the internet and IT. I wont call Tesla a startup because they are providing a variant of an existing product; that variant is no doubt a game changer as it will change and push the Petroleum economy. But the car itself is not a game changer. 

 

Unicorn1I read a news item today which said that Delhivery a startup has become a Unicorn company. Unicorn is a mythical animal depicted from thousands of years and appears unique; maybe that is the reason this name Unicorn, a unique company. Unicorn company is defined as a company whose valuation as per markets is One billion (One thousand million) US $, i.e. Rs Seven thousand crores. As a semi-retired person nearing 70, I feel out of depth to read such figures. But for records, all my life I have run a business (a dirty secret- a software business) and had consulting assignments. In both my activities, I have dealt with companies from a couple of billion dollars to nearly 40 billion dollars. So, these numbers don’t scare me, but personally these days I go to an ATM to withdraw money for myself, I am a small man.  

Many of these Unicorn companies have been based on the internet, and IT technologies but some of them are doing the work of brick and mortar things as mere mortals do. Here is a table that I got on the net and made me start thinking. 

US $ Million  Revenue 2018 Funding   Valuation  R/F  R/V  F/V 
BYJU  219  784  4000  0.28  0.055  0.196 
Swiggy  72  1500  3300  0.048  0.022  0.455 
Zomato  47  653  2500  0.072  0.019  0.26 
PayTM  51  2200  10000  0.023  0.005  0.22 
Oyo  400  1600  5000  0.25  0.08  0.32 
Policy Bazar  62  35  1000  1.77  0.062  0.035 
Udaan  4  285  1000  0.014  0.004  0.285 
Freshworks  14.5  249  1500  0.058  0.010  0.166 
Delhivery  15  365  1500  0.041  0.010  0.243 

 I will briefly mention what they do.  

  • BYJU is in online training– revenue from students 
  • Swiggy and Zomato are restaurant food delivery companies- revenue from the restaurants whose food they pick up and deliver. Tie up with restaurants and menu details is unique 
  • PayTM is a wallet plus allied things company
  • Oyo- helps book hotel rooms and takes money from hotels– this is unique 
  • Policy Bazar- helps you buy many policies online- commission on the sale 
  • Udaan is like Flipkart and sales products online 
  • Freshworks offers sales and support solutions 
  • DelhiveryPhysically delivers goods from place A to place B and has warehousing facilities.  

To me except Oyo, Swiggy and Zomato others do not fit the strictest of the definition. Are other companies providing products and services that did not exist before? No, still they are called startups! By this definition then, like other companies, my company was also a startup and faced the same problems as these companies are facing today. The only difference is that some experts in the world thinks that they are doing something extraordinary!  

As usual, my mind started whirring, and I have questions! What is so unique in becoming a company which some experts” feel is doing fantastic work; they have invested large sums of money in them. For an oldtimer like me what matters is how much I am selling and what is the profit that I make out of the business!  Is the business sustainable over a period of time?

I will introduce two more terms now for better understanding. 

Venture capital firms are investment companies that operate only to handle investments in business ventures that may be considered high risk. 

An angel investor (also known as a business angel, informal investor, angel funder, private investor, or seed investor) is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity.  

Now that we are through with definitions, tables, please help me solve my queries. When the companies are creating variants of existing available services and products, how do they become startups? These companies are supposedly creating products and services which are not existing. So how do investors and angels analyse them, study them and invest considerable sums in them? Uber concept never existed, Airbnb is a new concept; so in these two cases, the investors seemed to do more right than wrong.  

I have read that more than 90% of startups fail. What could be the reason? The reasons for failures are the same as the reasons for any failed businesses. These are 

  • Lack of focus
  • Lack of motivation 
  • Too much pride and ego; that you were a smart techie does not mean that you can create and run business 
  • Taking advice from wrong people (including advisors brought in by investors) 
  • Lack of general and specific domain knowledge in life finance, operations and marketing 
  • Raising too much money too soon. 
  • Lacking good mentorship  

From what I understand about the world of business, you need experience, maturity. How will young guns have this? Recently I read some story about a 15-year-old who has done something great in creating a platform for short story writers. He has two thousand hits to his short stories! Come on, its not two million hits. I also happen to be a blogger, and I know what hits are and how difficult it is to get them.

Similarly, how can 25 years old be know all? He may be brilliant both in his techie side and convincing the investors about his ideas about which others don’t know much, anyway. How do dollars get converted into a sustainable running company? 

The table above shows all the figures in million US dollars. It shows revenue, money pumped in and valuation! The revenue is tiny when compared to the money invested. Who does the valuation? What is the significance of the appraisal? I will tell you something about valuation. How can an unproven company, with unproven management, product or services with 4/15/14 million dollars have 1.5 billion dollars valuation?  Do investors not understand these things? But since private money is involved, who cares?  Is this gambling, horse racing equivalent?

Apple was the first company whose valuation reached one trillion (I can’t count zeroes) US dollars. But once the US-China trade war started, it appeared that Apple may have problems. Immediately its valuation has come down, now Microsoft is numero uno! Apple valuation with tons of money and great products and with proven track records can come down. The companies listed in the table above are both brick and mortar companies and IT companies with nothing proven. Their valuation is going up and up and up! Any logic? 

Friends I will introduce you to more things. What people called in olden days as an investment, is now called burn rate. These companies burn money, it’s not yours anyway. Then there are serial entrepreneurs a la serial killers! They create startups, burn money (a % goes to own pockets), take the company to a level and start looking for larger companies for merger and acquisition! Someone decides and declares them more valuable. So promoters, investors, angels all make money as a new set of people replaces the old team. The show goes on. Nobody keeps track of what happens to such companies. Since bank funds and financial institution money is not involved nobody cares. No Nirav Modis and Mallyas are created. Start next company and go through the same cycle, make a million or two. The cycle goes on.

The end result of all this is that “Startup Culture starts in your country. The startup language is a new language which most don’t understand and I am sure you have still a lot of questions on the subject discussed, even after you have read this piece!

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pulwama-War or Peace?

War1

                 जंग तो खुद ही एक मसला है, जंग क्‍या मसअलोंका हल देगी? 

                 आग और खून आज बक्‍शेगी, भूक और एहतीयाज कल देगी। 

                        इसलिए ऐ शरीफ इन्सानों, जंग टलती रहे तो बेहतर है। 

                  आप और हम सभी के आंगन में, शमा जलती रहे तो बेहतर है।

These are the lyrics of a poem by Sahir Ludhiyanvi, the famous poet and lyricist. These lines aptly fit the stand-off between India and Pakistan after the Pulwama incident. Pakistan has been following the policy of thousand small cuts against India and has succeeded. In between these small terrorist attacks, they have made significant attacks like Pathankot in 2016 and the recent one at Pulwama. With the latest attack, the whole Indian nation came together, and the atmosphere in India became very tense. Some print media newspapers, web newspapers and TV stations started making jingoistic statements. The frenzy led to people making statements like, “Let’s teach the enemy a lesson!” It is easy to get swerved, but the Indian government remained steadfast in their stand and said that they were studying the matter and would take appropriate action at the right time.

The poem brings reason to our thinking in such tough situations. The gist of the poem is in the first line. “When the war itself is an issue, how can we use war to resolve other issues.” Hence, the poet says, gentlemen try and avoid war! It is better if we have the Candles burning in our courtyards! The candles burning signifies peace.  Let us not burn candles for martyrs.

What does war do? In recent times we had one in Kargil and before that 1971 war which gave birth to Bangla Desh. Pakistan had been morally hurt due to the 1971 war where ninety thousand of its soldiers were required to surrender to the Indian army. Unfortunately, none of the Pakistani leaders had the mentality of trying for peace. Bhutto was suave but was a hawk who wanted one thousand years of war with India. Zia Ul Haque was a religious fanatic and gave birth to the thought of troubling India under the garb of religion. Kafirs must be punished was his theory. Musharaff was equally terrible with a hawkish mentality like Bhutto.

Sine the 1971 war, India has always offered to discuss and resolve the issues but Pakistan all the time wanted to take the Kashmir problem on the global forums; India has always said that it is a bilateral problem. Pakistan has all the time had a so-called democracy in which the government was controlled by ISI and the military; successive governments were in denial about the terrorism problem.

Various Indian governments tried peaceful negotiations, including a visit by Modi to wish Nawaz Sharif on his birthday. When Musharraf was the prime minister, cricket match diplomacy was attempted, but results have been continued terrorist attacks. What is the solution to this? War? No way. Jingoistic sabre rattling by social media, TV anchors is not a solution.  They only vitiate already tense atmosphere. The anchors and their brethren have crossed the LOC many times in discussions; they have bombed the bases and won the wars in their dreams. I understand that TV anchors have a job like you and me. But they shout, “We don’t want condemnation, but we want blood, enemy blood!” These folks think that it is like moving around on a film set with a toy gun and kill the enemy, Rambo style! Red paint on the chest and all! It is like playing soldier-soldier! In war, somebody’s brother or father or son dies. We should not forget that it’s a human being like you and me that dies, whether he is Indian or a Pakistani is secondary. Villages and towns on the borders are also damaged, people get killed.

It is excellent for TRP’s with simulated atom bombs blowing the mushroom cloud. But do these anchors know how many people died in the two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki? It is estimated that approximately One hundred and fifty thousand people died in Hiroshima and about seventy thousand people died in Nagasaki! Are we prepared to take the human losses on this scale? With more powerful bombs and a much larger population than 75 years ago, the number of deaths is unimaginable, if the bombs are dropped today.

The link below is a link for an interview in Indian Express. IE team interviewed Gautam Bambawale who was the High Commissioner of India in Pakistan in 2016/2017 and was in China in 2018, post-Doklam controversy. As per the current practice anchors and politicians may not believe some of the facts shared by Gautam. Style these days is to ask for proof. Gautam, by the way, is a Puneite, and his parents lived in Chaturshringi area.

https://indianexpress.com/article/india/one-surgical-or-aerial-strike-may-not-force-pak-to-stop-aiding-terror-but-we-have-raised-the-costs-gautam-bambawale-5618709/

After every incident, there are a lot of discussions in the government agencies, within them and with each other. These discussions are held under the leadership of the head of the government. Armed Forces are consulted for preparedness and options. External affairs ministry starts dialogues with the different international governments to explain India’s thinking and possible action. These friends are requested to support India openly as well as in the bodies like the United Nations. Coordinating with other governments is a real tough and confidential work that takes place in the background. Mr Bambawale has said in the interview that after Pathankot some action was imminent.  (it was known only to a very few people on the need to know basis) The ministry of External affairs had advised him to be prepared to ensure that all embassy staff was safe by locking down in a safe place. Lockdown was essential as the reactions within Pakistan could not be predicted.

Blood for blood is a slogan good for TRP. What terrorists do can never be justified. But in the conventional war, thousands of soldiers from both sides can die! Let us not forget that Pakistanis are also human beings like you and me. Their powerless and hence unreasonable government’s acts, cannot be replied with a full-fledged war. What India did post Pulwama was to show Pakistan that now it means business. It hit the terrorist camps deep inside Pakistan territory! When India made a land-based surgical strike after Pathankot attack, Pakistan went into denial. But this time they tried to react with an air attack, which led to combat and they lost an F 16 fighter, and we lost MIG 21. Indian pilot Abhinandan was captured after he bailed out in Pakistan territory. Under international pressure, Pakistan released him in a couple of days to win a few brownie points.

Mr Bambawale has said in his interview, “With the (surgical strikes) for the first time in 2016, and now again in 2019, what we have indicated is that the people of India have had it up to their necks in suffering from terrorist activities. Also, we have indicated — and the government can take credit for the bold and brave decision — that if Pakistan does not control terrorists, then we will go and strike them inside Pakistan. That is what has changed. A lot of people are describing it as a new template that has been brought to the table. I agree with that assessment. It is no one’s case that one surgical strike, or one aerial strike, would force Pakistan to stop aiding and abetting terrorism. But we have increased and raised the costs for them to do this.”

Our brilliant opposition members in politics seem to have mentally become Pakistani supporters. One of the leaders said in an interview that Pulwama mastermind was Mr Modi. This clip was continuously being shown on Pakistan TV. Some opposition leaders initially made statements that we are together with the government. But later they congratulated the air force for the strike. Such attacks are approved by the head of government was conveniently forgotten. Then they started challenging the attack itself and said where is the body count. It seems that opposition expects that, after a surprise attack some Indians will go to the location and take the body count. Another leader also said the same thing. We will support the air force, but we will never help the Prime Minister. The raising of severe doubts about Indian State and its actions using the Air Force was the height of stupidity. The meaning of what they said was that the Air Force was in connivance with the government to cook a story of the air strike. Pakistanis must have been laughing; they must have said we don’t need Chinese or US support, our Indian friends are supporting our cause.

Mr Bambawale’s interview gives you a deep insight into how the crisis is handled. I sincerely wish and hope that for once the opposition leaders will stop talking in a frenzy as if they were Pakistani supporters. But in spite of opposition, our government has handled the situation well especially on the international stage. Propaganda made in other countries is putting pressure on Pakistan to act against the terrorist camps and the outfits.

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“One surgical or aerial strike may not force Pak to stop aiding terror. But we have raised the costs”. One sentence summarises Gautam Bambawale’s interview.  The idiom “One Swallow does not make a summer” perfectly fits the situation. India has finally changed its policy which will make Pakistan think about continuing with its current strategy of supporting terrorism. Individual terrorist attacks may continue for some time, but audacious attacks like Pathankot and Pulwama may not happen again because they know that India is going to hit back discretely, at their own will.

To conclude, Rajwardhan Rathore, Indian Minister,  has summed up the situation in cricketing parlance! He said, “Now in the terrorism game, India is now doing batting also. All these days we were just fielding!”

A Ray of hopes?

With the India-Pakistan skirmish of the last few days, is there a hope finally for the sanity to prevail? This blog is just taking a reference to the critical event happening in our sub-continent! A little miscalculation could have led to a war between the two nations having nuclear weapons. (Fingers crossed) The hyphen that I used above to mention the two countries is only in the perspective that indicates similarity of massive war machines and nuclear weapons the two countries have.

But I will not use the hyphen again when I mention India and Pakistan. The hyphen is used when two entities are equal in most respects. Till 1971 war, both countries were equally poor, but India handled the situation deftly at that time and split Pakistan, waiting to be divided. Cultures in the then West and East Pakistan were so different that only the might of the army and police state could not keep them together. After this war, both the nations followed a different path which was a typical Asian chaotic path and both succeeded. India has now become a significant economic power having a reasonable say, in world affairs. (With cows and Mandirs still around) Pakistan became a haven for terrorists and terrorism; it has done better than India and has reached the top! India started the journey by transferring its gold reserves to Bank of England as surety for taking loans, and now it has become the fourth largest economy in the world. Pakistan tried to ride the tiger helping the USA against Russians in Afghanistan; this conflict sowed the seeds for mercenaries and in the end, the so-called faith-based terrorists. Osama Bin Laden as the most dreaded non-state actor was born under such environment and rest, as they say, is history.

But I am not going to write about terrorism. Last year I had written a blog

https://panvalkarpramod.wordpress.com/2018/07/24/democracy-mobocracy-lynching/

Today my friend Pradeep wrote his comments on this blog, as below. Pradeep lives in the US.

This blog addresses the unfortunate consequences of fake news, but the initiation and spreading of fake news seem like the fundamental problem which needs real and immediate solutions. None are on the horizon in spite of some recent efforts. At least in the US, anything goes under “freedom of expression”, but there are those who will believe anything. Some are gullible, some are naive, but many are opportunists waiting to advance their agenda under any guise.

Today’s blog is mainly about good changes that seem to have taken place in India during the last few days. The whole electronic media was sober in reporting the news, compared to the usual jingoistic discussions. They were reporting only confirmed news, or no speculative news was reported. The news coming from Pakistan was also taken from their official sites or official twitter handle. For news from Pakistan media, the words used were “Pakistan Claimed” to describe the news item. I am quite sure there must have been hundreds of rumours, spiked videos circulating on the net. But the WA groups where I am a member hardly circulated such fake items. If someone attempted to share fake or rumoured news, members were immediately asked by the admin to delete such items. The usual sharing of laddoos and sweets was shown on videos on WhatsApp, but this was also done quietly.

Rumours and fake news spread has been mainly because of the advent of social media. India has the highest number of WA users in the world. Indians have taken up to WA like fish in the water. But the Indian government has been pushing WA management to find technical solutions to prevent misuse. A few months back WA came up with a restriction that a message could be forwarded to only five entities, at a time. This restriction has helped in reducing the forward’s people used to make. Now spreading fake item or rumours is not as simple as it used to be. On top of that the WA management is putting up advertisements in newspapers, all over India, in local languages; they are encouraging people to avoid misuse of WA. They are saying, “Use us for joy and enjoy!”

The government of India is also talking to media companies like Twitter, Facebook and is trying to get their big bosses to meet the parliamentary committees, specially formed to prevent the issues created by misuse of social media. These are multinational organisations, so they will take some time to meet. But ultimately they know that volume of business is going to come from India, in future. In India already 400 million people have access to the Internet. This number is larger than the population of the USA. I feel that the so-called freedom of doing anything is misused in the USA more than any other country in the world. In California, a few years back during gunfire, police felt that a terrorist could be involved. The US government tried to get the data from one persons iPhone. Even the courts could not force Apple to give access to his records. So much for freedom!  Freedom is more important than a few deaths at the hand of terrorists. On the other side, the US government has a terrific tracking system of suspected terrorists. One name on the US list is Shah Rukh Khan. Famous Indian superstar has to face interrogation every time he enters the United States at any port. No exceptions.

Are we changing as a society? No, we are not. We glorify many things from olden times, even though many theories are still unproven. More than ten years back a rumour started spreading in India that a Ganesha Idol was drinking milk. India came to a standstill with this rumour. Check this video.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2MG64rk6qkg

Almost 30 years back, there used to be TV serials Ramayana and Mahabharat. Their timing was 9 am to 10 am. The traffic on roads at that time would be zero! So much for faith. Indian society has unbelievable faith in mythological stories. Another remark that I hear is that if it is in writing, then it must be true. In today’s scenario, if there is a video of something, then it must be true. Such blind faith is ideal for rumour mongering.

Let me remind you of something which you must be aware. People of all strata of life believed in the Ganesha rumour; education wise, financial status wise there was no discrimination. Everybody believed in that story. This story reached my ears when a friend of mine Managing Director of a company. He is highly educated and sophisticated. He called me early morning to tell me the story. I said, “Come on buddy, you don’t believe it.” He tried to convince me how it was true.

Good things have come out of this skirmish. Pakistan initially showed a video of the blindfolded felled pilot. After a couple of hours, this video was removed. There were 10 to 15 videos on youtube which Indian government felt were not proper for a peaceful atmosphere. Youtube quietly removed those videos. On WhatsApp, some messages circulating were about how not spread hate messages. Whom to report if such a message was observed. There were messages to all to remain peaceful and let the government do its work. This definitely is a welcome change.

But this has happened during a national crisis. Will we behave maturely in future, in the normal course of life? Will we as a society maintain decorum and be sensible? Honestly, I am not sure. Let the black clouds of Pulwama disperse and let us see how our society behaves. Lynchings based on Cow vigilantes or rumoured kidnappings of babies are not going away very soon. We are capable of blindly believing and following anything. Kalburgis and Dabholkars of this world have been murdered because they were against rituals and trying to teach people to stay away from them.

Pradeep, yes, a good beginning has been made in the backdrop of Pulwama, and it shows a tiny ray of hope that is breaking through dark clouds! That too in India, of all the places! Amen!